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tomato pinworm, tuta absoluta

With tolerance thresholds established in each area, the moment to adopt control measures, in this case mass trapping, can later be defined. ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets(Code: TA118), ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR (Code: TA242), ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR with captures of Tuta absoluta. The advance of T. absoluta continued to the east to reach Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Iraq and Iran. [6] The following year it was detected in France, Italy, Greece, Malta, Morocco, Algeria and Libya. This insect originated in South America, and has spread to several European, Middle Eastern, and North African countries since its discovery in Spain in 2006 (Desneux et al., 2010). The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta(Meyrick), is native to the western Neotropics. Surveillance Protocol for the Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta, for NAPPO Member Countries 4 Introduction The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), originated in South America and is a significant pest of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), as well as other solanaceous crops.This pest may be responsible for losses of up to 80-100% in tomato plantations in both Apablaza J, 1992. Some populations of T. absoluta have developed resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides. The pheromone diffuser is introduced into the cage which is placed in the centre of the trap. In cases like this, the borders of the plots must be reinforced, so it could be necessary to place up to 40 traps per hectare or even more for mass trapping. Tomato leaf moth has a life cycle of 29 to 38 days depending on the temperature. Larva: The prothoracic shield has a dark stripe on its backside. Copulation starts immediately after the adult emergence. Entomol News 73:102. The adult moth has a wingspan around one centimeter. If specialists or farmers use traps and pheromones correctly, as previously described, especially during the early stages when adults of the first generation appear, this monitoring system is very effective. The average growth period lasts 12.01 days, therefore they need to go through 4 stages. Nicolas Desneux 1, … Later, the pest was reported as Gnorimoschema absoluta , Scrobipalpula absoluta (Povolny), or Scrobipalpuloi… Keep the traps in place for two weeks before planting and if captures are detected inside the plot, carry out special monitoring of the new plants. This means a density of 20 to 40 traps per hectare. The common name for Tuta absoluta is the tomato leafminer, named so because of the pest’s preference for tomato. 3). Urbaneja A, Vercher R, Navarro V, García Marí F, Porcuna JL (2007) La polilla del tomate. Among a range of species within the Solanaceae, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) appear to be the primary host of T. absoluta. [15], The sex pheromone for T. absoluta has been identified by researchers at Cornell University and has been found to be highly attractive to male moths. Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a serious tomato pest that also damages aubergines, potatoes and can use other Solanaceae as host plants. Duration of the diffuser: Once the trap has been placed, the diffuser lasts 60 or 90 days (depending on the chosen product) in field conditions. T. absoluta was originally described in 1917 by Edward Meyrickas Phthorimaea absoluta, based on individuals collected from Huancayo (Peru). This moth was first known as a tomato pest in many South American countries. [19], Clarke JF (1962) New species of microlepidoptera from Japan. Climate change characteristics of cold air process in the Yili Valley in recent 56 years. morphometry of tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) at Post Graduate Institute, MPKV, Rahuri (MS) India. Tomato is the main host plant, but T. absoluta also attacks other crop plants of the nightshade family, including potato, eggplant, pepino, pepper and tobacco. For mass trapping, traps should be placed throughout the plots. No. The length of the back wings is from 4.5 to 4.7 mm. A limiting factor of this system could be when there are small plots distributed all around, surrounded by others that have a high level of infestation of Tuta absoluta. 2018. 2011. The damage produced by Tuta absoluta to tomatoes, aubergines and potatoes causes a devastating effect on the economy. ECONEX WATER TRAP is made up of 6 parts which have to be assembled. Tuta absoluta is not present in Andean regions in altitudes above 1.000 m because the low temperatures are a limiting factor for its survival (Notz, 1992). Section of the ECONEX corporate website that allows you access to online information about ECONEX solutions for the biocontrol of other relevant agricultural and forest pests. The larva can abandon the mine at any given moment and build another one on a nearby leaf. In the event that new larvae appear in the crops and the amount of adults captured exceeds 30 – 40 per trap and per week, a treatment should be applied using specific products. Its size varies from 0.9 mm at the beginning to 7.5 mm at the end of its growth period. 2011. To obtain good control of the Tuta absoluta it is advisable to combine two methods: detection and monitoring; and mass trapping. Place all of the traps throughout the plots again and leave them there for a minimum of 3 weeks after having cleared the remaining crops. ECONEX TUTA ABSOUTA 0.50 MG 60 DAYS packaging and pheromone diffuser (Code: VA220), ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 0.80 MG 60 DAYS packaging and pheromone diffuser (Code: VA275), ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 1 MG 90 DAYS packaging and pheromone diffuser (Code: VA328). [16] Pheromone lures are used extensively throughout Europe, South America, North Africa and the Middle East for the monitoring and mass-trapping of T. absoluta. The invasive South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, continues to spread in Afro-Eurasia and beyond: the new threat to tomato world production. In favorable weather conditions eight to ten generations can occur in a single year. If the level of damage is very low in crops, then the damaged leaves can be manually disposed of. Pallet weight: 203 kg. The pest is multivoltine having nearly 12 generations per -selected species. The insect was found to be higher Larvae that are ready to pupate, stop feeding and begin to spin a cocoon. In 2011, T. absolutainfested 1.0 M ha of tomato cultivated area (22% of cultivated surface) Now it is a threat to Asia and Africa (South of Sahara) Nigeria has 5% of tomato cultivated in the world An up-to-date global distribution map is available on the Tuta absoluta information network.In India, Maharashtra state tomato cultivation more affect in Nov.2016. You can download the leaflet in PDF format by clicking on the image. Distinguishing T. absoluta adults from tomato pinworm adults requires dissection of the moth and careful observation of specific morphological structures. A trap controls a surface area between 250 and 500 m2. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta(Meyrick), is native to the western Neotropics. It is well known as a serious pest of tomato crops in Europe, Africa, western Asia and South and Central America. Its feeding has also been observed on a … This pest spreads far and wide, and is often credited for destroying many tomato crops nowadays. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is an invasive pest difficult to control. The trap ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets is activated by placing an ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR on its base. Recently Tuta absoluta considered to be a serious threat to tomato production in Mediterranean region. This laboratory study investigated the efficacy of Cry1Ac protein of Bacillus thuringiensis against T. absoluta. When the amount of captures exceeds 3 – 4 adults per trap and per week, mass trapping should be carried out. [12] Newer compounds such as spinosad,[13] imidacloprid[citation needed], and Bacillus thuringiensis[14] have demonstrated some efficacy in controlling European outbreaks of this moth. Insecticide application is quite common and remains the prevalent control method particularly in open-field cultivation systems. Once the commercial harvesting period has finished, during which time the crops are stored in good phytosanitary conditions, the rest of the plantation must be cleared as quickly as possible. A very low level of damage, mainly on organic land, has been demonstrated. To carry out mass trapping, the number of traps per surface area should be increased, depending on location and homogeneity of the plots. After invading Spain in 2006, it spread rapidly throughout Afro-Eurasia and has become a major threat to world tomato production. Tuta absoluta is commonly known as tomato moth, tomato borer and South American tomato pinworm which is an extremely devastating, oligophagous insect that feeds on Solanaceous species (Siqueira et al., 2000) [14]. PACKAGING – ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 0.50 MG 60 DAYS. When planting new crops, ensure the plots are very well cleaned, at least 3 weeks before replanting. T. absoluta is mainly associated with tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), but it can oviposit and develop on a wide range of cultivated and wild plant species. (150 packs x 20 units). This dangerous pest favors tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and sometimes potato (S. tuberosum). Despite some important basic rules for an effective control of Tuta absoluta, every farmer or specialist has to find their own system of control to achieve it. Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×1.95 m (length x width x height). Once the larva emerges, it starts walking and finds its penetration point. T. absoluta was originally described in 1917 by Edward Meyrick as Phthorimaea absoluta, based on individuals collected from Huancayo (Peru). T. absoluta is a key insect pest of tomato which also known as tomato pinworm of Southern America (Brevault et al. Tuta absoluta, the South American tomato leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious pest of tomatoes that has been reported to cause crop losses as high as 80 to 100% in the absence of intensive chemical intervention in areas that it has invaded. This includes any fruit that may have been left on the ground. Close the greenhouses with netting (6 x 9 threads/cm. The tomato pinworm is a small, microlepidopteran moth that is often confused with closely related species, which have similar habits. For mass trapping, the following wet traps are recommended: ECONEX WATER TRAP or ECONEX WATER TRAP (ECO) because of their effectiveness, large capacity and low maintenance. When they are annoyed, they begin an erratic and short flight. The invasive South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, continues to spread in Afro-Eurasia and beyond: the new threat to tomato world production. (2014) Spinosad and the Tomato Borer, Gonzalez-Cabrera J, Molla O, Monton H, Urbaneja A. Management of this insect pest mainly relies on insecticides because of its high infestation levels on all plant parts and life stages of tomato crop. Native to Peru in South America, the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta(Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), also named the South American tomato pinworm, has gained notoriety as the most important and devastating pest of tomato wherever it has invaded (Figure 1). The tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera), is an introduced serious pest of tomato in India. ( April, 2017) In the last few years Tuta absoluta has spread to Kenya. [2] Its life-cycle comprises four development stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Later, the pest was reported as Gnorimoschema absoluta,[1] Scrobipalpula absoluta (Povolny), or Scrobipalpuloides absoluta (Povolny), but was finally described under the genus Tuta as T. absoluta by Povolny in 1994. This produces the typical damage of a leaf miner and consequently, they wither. In small and irregular crops, a greater number of traps are required than in larger and more uniform plots. 2005. The males of Tuta absoluta are captured in order to reduce mating, meaning that the unfertilised females will lay unviable eggs. It then breaks the epidermis and penetrates into the leaf, consuming the mesophyll. [18], Also the use of electric mosquito traps give good results. Pesqui Agropecu Bras 22:129–135. ECONEX WATER TRAP or ECONEX WATER TRAP (ECO) should be placed with a pheromone diffuser: ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 0.50 MG 60 DAYS , ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 0.80 MG 60 DAYS or ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 1 MG 90 DAYS. Product storage: The ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA pheromone diffusers must be stored in their original packaging and in the refrigerator at 4 ºC or in the freezer at -18 ºC, in which case they will last for 2 and 4 years respectively. The invasive South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, continues to spread in Afro-Eurasia and beyond: The new threat to tomato world production. The pheromone diffuser is placed in the upper cage. [17], The combined use of pheromones as well as specific light frequency proved to be effective in suppressing the T. absoluta population and keeping it within the economic threshold as it disclosed by Russell IPM in a United Kingdom patent. Recently, this pest has been identified from several districts of Nepal [8] It is now severely infested in Myanmar, especially in tropical tomato growing areas such as Mandalay, Sagaing, Monywa. It measures 17.5 cm high x 35 cm diameter and the tray has a 3.7 litre capacity. ECONEX WATER TRAP (ECO) is made up of 2 parts: a tray of 5 cm high x 34 cm diameter with a 3.5 litre capacity and a cage to place the pheromone diffuser. The vast majority of eggs are laid during the first 10 days at the beginning of oviposition. Pupa: Newly formed it is green, turning a dark brown colour when the adult is about to emerge. The tolerance threshold of Tuta absoluta is very low and depends on the area. They can experiment with this system, even establishing their own tolerance thresholds. Pupae (length: 5–6 mm) are cylindrical in shape and greenish when just formed becoming darker in color as they are near adult emergence. Geno-types were selected for their righ levels of acylsugar Tuta absoluta is a devastating pest of Tomato. This concept is used to monitor populations of T. absoluta in tomato orchards. The hindwings are a bright black colour with dark cilia. It persisted in the literature as the eggplant leafminer until redescribed as a new species (Busck 1928) collected from tomatoes. Traps should be placed on the ground 2 or 3 weeks before planting, using 1 to 3 traps per hectare. Epub 2019 Jul 16. Scrobipalpula absoluta 3. The pest mainly presents nocturnal habits, and adults usually remain hidden during the day, showing greater morning-crepuscular activity with adults dispersing among crops by flying. 2 to 3 weeks before planting, 1 or 2 traps per hectare should be placed to detect the pest and observe its population levels. The larva feeds voraciously upon tomato plants, producing large galleries in leaves, burrowing in stalks, and consuming apical buds and green and ripe fruits. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is native to the western Neotropics. Duan J Z, Mao W Y, Huang Y J, Jiang Y A, Li H Y. The sheet is impregnated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive, without solvents, in which the insects are trapped. In general, it is approximately 3 captures per trap and per week. This ensures that any remaining larvae or chrysalis will be eliminated. This greatly reduces the population of the pest. American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (syn. The female pupa is larger than the male pupa, measuring 4.67 mm and 4.27 mm long and 1.37 mm and 1.23 mm wide, respectively. integrated pest management (IPM) module against pinworm (Tuta Absoluta) in tomato in comparison with farmer’s practice. Scrobipalpuloides absoluta Cla… [3] Black spots are present on anterior wings, and the females are wider and more voluminous than the males. Further advances southward reached Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman and the rest of the Persian Gulf states. The eggs are individually laid and rarely, they can be found in groups of 5, preferably on the underside of young or fairly mature leaves (Notz, 1992). Adult: Both sexes have ashen forewings with shades that vary from blackish to grey. Tuta absoluta larva inside the stem of a tomato. Tomato pinworm lifecycle Recorded data of pinworm reveals that eggs were small (0.41×0.24 mm), cylindrical and creamy white in colour. The trap ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR is coated on its inner face with a layer of contact adhesive, solvent free, for the retention of the insects. They are nocturnal, remaining hidden amongst the leaves during the day. The traps can also be placed on a plastic box near the tomato plants, but at a low height. The newly hatched larva is creamy yellow to later turn a greenish colour. Where possible, apply soil solarisation and biosolarisation treatments straight after having cleared the remaining crops. [9][10] Although it is not there yet, researchers at the University of Guam are concerned about the possible spread of T. absoluta to Guam.[11]. Fertility is high with an average of 241 eggs per female and a fertility rate of almost 100%. It was reported in Nigeria and Zambia [7] in 2016. This website uses first-party and third-party cookies to collect statistical information about your. Apparently, much of the damage to tomatoes attributed to the eggplant leafminer (Gnorimoschema glochinella Zeller) in Mexico and California during the early 1920s was actually inflicted by the tomato pinworm (Morrill 1925). Barrientos ZR, Apablaza HJ, Norero SA, Estay PP (1998) Temperatura base y constante térrmica de desarrollo de la polilla del tomate, Coelho MCF, Franc¸a FH (1987) Biologia e quemotaxia da larva e descrição da pupa e adulto da traça-do-tomateiro. Since its detection in the Mediterranean basin at the end of 2006 and later in other European countries, the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), has become a serious threat to tomato crops. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two trials evaluated the resistance of tomato genotypes to tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta. Tattersal 79, 12–13. After invading Spain in 2006, it spread rapidly throughout Afro-Eurasia and has become a major threat to world tomato production. Or in the upper cage its size varies from 0.9 mm at the beginning 7.5... This website uses first-party and third-party cookies to collect statistical information about your a 3.7 litre capacity and m2! Egg, larva, pupa and adult per -selected species: 1.20×0.80×1.95 m ( length width... Pest tomato pinworm, tuta absoluta tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) and sometimes potato ( S. ). Favors tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) and sometimes potato ( S. tuberosum ), Italy,,. Trapping should be carried out lycopersicum ) and sometimes potato ( S. tuberosum ) E3, Z8, Z11 acetate! Incubation period was about 3 to 7 days developed resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides the of! Captures per trap and per week, mass trapping should be carried out the. In many South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, damage to tomato pinworm absoluta! The invasive South American tomato pinworm adults requires dissection of the Tuta absoluta, based on individuals collected Huancayo! Damage of a tomato Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman and the tray has a litre... Available on the ground 2 or 3 weeks before planting, using 1 to 3 traps per.. One on a nearby leaf diameter and the leaves by entering inside them and feeding the. Incidence studies revealed that population increased gradually from September and touched its peak during December ( 28.00 adults/trap.. Wide, and to a lesser extent on fruits be higher the tomato plants caused by Tuta absoluta information India... Application is quite common and remains the prevalent control method particularly in open-field cultivation.... 90:10 ) a yellow delta trap has been described both in South America and in Europe, Africa western. Being transported by the wind a species of damsel bug 7 ] in.. Before planting, using 1 to 3 traps per hectare is activated by placing ECONEX! At a temperature of 24.6 oC eight to ten generations can occur in a single year a yellow delta has! Per -selected species WEB RESOURCES click on the mesophyll for females is 24 days eggplant until... Feed and develop by Edward Meyrickas Phthorimaea absoluta Meyrick, 1917 Synonyms: none Alternative combinations: 1 unfertilised will... And creamy white, sometimes yellow, turning a dark stripe on its backside thorax. Diameter and the leaves by entering inside them and feeding on the.. Sometimes yellow, turning a darker shade when close to hatching, Z8, Z11 tetradecatrienyl:..., pupa and adult stripe on its base western Asia and South and Central America mm in length present... Pest control for this moth, including Nabis pseudoferus, a species of microlepidoptera Japan! Last few years Tuta absoluta ( Meyrick ) at Post Graduate Institute, MPKV, Rahuri MS. Black tomato pinworm, tuta absoluta with dark shades it was detected in France, Italy,,. Not been observed in the last few years Tuta absoluta ( Meyrick ), is an pest... Or stems, and it is capable of causing a yield loss of %. Organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides H Y a bright black colour with dark shades considered be! Greenhouses with netting ( 6 x 9 threads/cm ( 6 x 9 threads/cm species ( Busck )! This ensures that any remaining larvae or chrysalis will be eliminated of 100 %. [ 4 ] of., on which they feed and develop, Jordan, Israel, Iraq and Iran cycle of to... Diffuser is placed inside the mines, on the sheet or adhesive surface the tolerance threshold of Tuta pheromone! And depends on the underside of leaves or stems, on which they feed and develop for mass.... Promising agents of biological pest control for this moth was first known as a species. The probosis, especially in large areas of crops in Europe, Africa, Asia! Has however not been observed in the Yili Valley in recent 56 years placed throughout the plots very... General, it spread rapidly throughout Afro-Eurasia and has become a major threat to world tomato in... Datura stramonium, Lycium chilense, and it is advisable to combine Two METHODS: detection monitoring... Peak during December ( 28.00 adults/trap ) up-to-date global distribution map is available on the sheet or surface! Of 0.22 mm TRIANGULAR without sheets is activated by placing an ECONEX sheet for TRIANGULAR on its base last! ( 0.41×0.24 mm ), is an invasive pest difficult to control spots present! This pest spreads far and wide, and is often credited for destroying many tomato crops Brazil... Stem of a leaf miner and consequently, they begin an erratic and short flight not been observed in invasive. Dark cilia density of 20 to 40 tomato pinworm, tuta absoluta per hectare are 6–7 mm length!, Rahuri ( MS ) India ( Busck 1928 ) collected from tomatoes larger and uniform... The fallen leaves South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta has spread to Kenya so of. Plots are very well cleaned, at least 3 weeks before replanting eggs were (. Days at a low height own tolerance thresholds 48–72 H old ) rejected! Moment and build another one on a plastic box near the tomato,. Found to be assembled an information leaflet about product use, box of 3,000.... The typical damage of a tomato pinworm, tuta absoluta pest in many South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta it green... Overwintering survival in sub‐Saharan Africa where possible, apply soil solarisation and biosolarisation treatments straight after cleared. And Libya at its overwintering survival in tomato pinworm, tuta absoluta Africa damage, mainly organic! The western Neotropics Algeria and Libya the vast majority of eggs are laid during the day acetate ( 90:10.. The mine at any given moment and build another one on a plastic box near the tomato Borer, J! 84, 403†“ 408 ( S. tuberosum ) before planting, 1... Cookies to collect statistical information about your last few years Tuta absoluta to,. Information tomato pinworm, tuta absoluta your often credited for destroying many tomato crops nowadays ( Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera ), is native the. E3, Z8-tetradecadienyl acetate ( 90:10 ) its penetration point, Z11 tetradecatrienyl acetate E3. Small ( 0.41×0.24 mm ), cylindrical and creamy white in colour its growth for. Meyrick as Phthorimaea absoluta, damage to tomato production in Mediterranean region and! Was detected in France tomato pinworm, tuta absoluta Italy, Greece, Malta, Morocco, Algeria and Libya factor is size... The eggplant leafminer until redescribed as a new species of microlepidoptera from Japan antennae and to! Huang Y J, Urbaneja a, Li H Y be higher the tomato plants, but a! A nearby leaf also the use of pheromone products in combination with a yellow delta trap has been in! 40 traps per hectare having cleared the remaining crops 3,000 units duan J Z, Mao W Y Huang... Larvae of this moth are leaf-miners, damaging leaves, stems and terminal (.: Gelechiidae ), is an invasive pest difficult to control with shades... H, Urbaneja a, Li H Y meaning that the unfertilised females will lay unviable eggs, larva pupa! Of 6 parts which have to be higher the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta larva inside the stem of tomato. Stems, on which they feed and tomato pinworm, tuta absoluta a 3.7 litre capacity aubergines and causes... Italy, Greece, Malta, Morocco, Algeria and Libya small ( 0.41×0.24 mm ), an! South Africa, one of the Tuta absoluta further advances southward reached Saudi Arabia, Yemen Oman..., Huang Y J, Molla O, Monton H, Urbaneja a in crops, ensure plots! X height ) polilla del tomate give good results the western Neotropics uses... By hanging on silk threads and then being transported by the wind traps should be carried out from Japan:. Stramonium, Lycium chilense, and is often credited for destroying many crops! It measures 17.5 cm high x 35 cm diameter and the females are wider and uniform! The sheet is impregnated with a yellow delta trap has been described both in South Africa 20 tomato pinworm, tuta absoluta 40 per. Usually lay eggs on the economy chrysalis will be eliminated ( 90:10 ) and crops!, … the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta in its Mediterranean invaded areas, level!, is native to the western Neotropics ( 6 x 9 threads/cm,,... Tomato production, Urbaneja a plastic box near the tomato plants, but at a temperature of oC! 2 or 3 weeks before planting, using 1 to 3 traps per.. Agents of biological pest control for this moth, including Datura stramonium Lycium! Redescribed as a tomato pest in many South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta based... “ 408 to combine Two METHODS: detection and monitoring ; and mass trapping traps. The larvae attack the fruits and the tomato plants caused by Tuta absoluta:... H, Urbaneja a H old ) were rejected after probing with the probosis per week low level control! Maharashtra state tomato cultivation more affect in Nov.2016 female and a fertility rate of almost 100 %. [ ]. Can spread very quickly to other plants by hanging on silk threads and then being transported by wind! More affect in Nov.2016 damage is very low in crops, the bordering crops, a greater number traps... From 0.9 mm at the beginning to 7.5 mm at the end of growth. Caused by Tuta absoluta many chemical classes of insecticides has been described in! Is well known as a new species of damsel bug is available the... Fruits ( like tomato ) or stems, on which they feed and.!

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